design various electrical systemsIntroductionYou are required to analyse and design various electrical systems in a modern automobile usingknowledge and skills gained in the EAT113 module. You will consider:1. Replacement of vehicle lamps with low power LEDs.2. Digital logic design and simplification of an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) function.3. Design of a capacitor-based regenerative braking energy recovery system.Each section is worth equal marks.InstructionsIn order to carry out each exercise you will need to use personalised values based on your student IDnumber, which should be clearly stated. Your answer to each question should include the fullmethod used to calculate your results. Be sure to clearly explain what you have done and how youhave done it at each stage.Zero marks will be awarded if:? No explanation of the calculations is presented, or your results are unclear.? You fail to use the correct values for the calculations based on your student ID.There is no requirement for you to perform any background research for this exercise, and no markswill be awarded for research.Your report should be submitted to the Assignment Desk in St Peter’s Library, Prospect Building, inperson or by post, by 4pm on Friday 21st August 2015.Electronic Submission is not accepted for this assignment and work which is submitted late or via anincorrect mode of submission will not be marked.Any questions regarding this assignment should be addressed to [email protected] 1 – Vehicle LightsThe vehicles light system consists of the following bulbs:Lamp Number WattageHeadlamp 2 45 WRunning Lamp 2 30 WIndicator 2 20 WFog Lamp 2 30 WNumber Plate Lamp 2 5 WBrake Lamp 3 20 WReversing Lamp 1 20 WRear Lamp 2 10 WThese lamps are to be replaced by a special type of Light Emitting Diode (LED). Three of these LEDsconnected in series are capable of producing the same light output as a 5W bulb. You may assumethat the light output of a higher wattage bulb can be obtained by connecting additional parallel LEDbanks, e.g. 10 W Conventional bulb can be replaced by 6 LEDs, 15 W conventional bulb can bereplaced by 9 LEDs etc. As an example, replacement LED circuits for 5 W and 10 W lamps are shownbelow.The maximum LED current is given by 1XX mA where XX is the last two digits of your studentnumber, e.g. if your student number is 123654876, the maximum current the LEDs can operate at is176 mA. When fully activated you should assume the LED forward voltage is 3 V. The vehicle powersupply system is 12 V. When the engine is not running a 40 Ah battery is used to supply the lights.This means that the battery can supply 40 A for one hour, 20 A for two hours, 1 A for 40 hours, etc.Task 1AThe LEDs are to be wired in series combinations of three LEDs with a protection resistor in place tolimit the current. Calculate the value of this protection resistor and explain your calculation.(5 marks)Task 1BCalculate the power used in each LED circuit. Determine the percentage reduction in power when alllights are activated compared to the original bulbs.(5 marks)Task 1CDetermine the increase in the time the lights can be powered (assuming all lamps are illuminated)before the battery becomes discharged.(5 marks)Task 1DMake a recommendation for the current rating of a fuse for the Headlamps (only). Be sure to explainany calculations you have used and justify your answer.(5 marks)(Total for Task 1: 20 marks)Part 2 – Digital Logic Design.Operation of an important part of the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) is a combinational logic functionbased on four sensors: A, B, C, and D. The output (Y) of the function is based on the following truthtable, which is to be customised based on your student number.Row A B C D Y (Output)0 0 0 0 0 ?1 0 0 0 1 ?2 0 0 1 0 ?3 0 0 1 1 ?4 0 1 0 0 ?5 0 1 0 1 ?6 0 1 1 0 ?7 0 1 1 1 ?8 1 0 0 0 ?9 1 0 0 1 ?10 1 0 1 0 111 1 0 1 1 112 1 1 0 0 113 1 1 0 1 114 1 1 1 0 115 1 1 1 1 1To complete the truth table above, you should identify each unique digit in your student numberand write a ‘1’ in the equivalent output row above, and ‘0’ otherwise. For example, if your studentnumber is 111224467, you would write a 1 in the output of rows 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7, and write a ‘0’ inthe output of rows 0, 3, 5, 8 and 9.Task 2ACreate a Karnaugh map based on your truth table and identify the simplified Boolean expression ofyour circuit.(10 marks)Task 2BDraw a logic circuit based on your simplified Boolean expression.(10 marks)(Total for Task 2: 20 marks)Part 3 – Regenerative BrakingA regenerative braking system is installed in the vehicle. This will use supercapacitors to store theenergy recovered during deceleration, using this energy later to assist the acceleration of thevehicle. The mass of your vehicle is 1,XX0 kg where XX are the last two numbers of your studentnumber.Part 3ACalculate the maximum amount of energy which can be harvested when a vehicle slows from 40km/hr to a standstill.(5 marks)Part 3BA parallel bank of 100 supercapacitors is to be used to store the energy. Each supercapacitor has acapacitance of 1.5 F. Assuming that all of the available energy is captured, determine the voltage towhich the capacitors must be charged to store the captured energy.(5 marks)Part 3CDetermine the total charge which is transferred to the capacitor bank under braking.(5 marks)Part 3DCaclulate the average current which must flow if it takes 10 s for the vehicle to slow down.(5 marks)(Total for Task 3: 20 marks)
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